Tutkimuksia

Jiaogulanin käytössä havaitut terveysvaikutukset ovat herättäneet mielenkiinnon yrttiä kohtaan. Jiaogulanista onkin tehty tieteellisiä tutkimuksia, joissa sen terveyttä edistävät vaikutukset on todettu. Amerikkalainen tietopalveluyritys Wolters Kluwer on koonnut yhteen Jiaogulania (Gynostemma pentaphyllum) koskevia tutkimuksia:

1. Zhang ZH, Liu H, Zhao LH, Han XZ. Clonal propagation of Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino in test tubes [in Chinese]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1989; 14 (6): 335–336, 382.

2. Liu X, Tang F. Tissue culture and plantlet regeneration of Gynostemma pentaphyllum

[in Chinese]

. Zhong Yao Cai. 1989; 12 (6): 8–10.

3. Wu M, Jiang R. Pharmacognosy of Gynostemma pentaphyllum and Cayratia japonica

[in Chinese]

. Zhong Yao Cai. 1987; (4): 22–25.

4. Ding S, Zhu Z, Li Y. Pharmacognostical study of Gynostemma (Cucurbitaceae) in China [in Chinese]. Yao Xue Xue Bao. 1994; 29 (2): 79–83.

5. Liu J, Blumert M. Jiaogulan: China’s Immortality Herb. Badger, CA: Torchlight Publishing; 1999.

6. Duke JA. Handbook of Medicinal Herbs. 2nd ed. CRC Press; 2002: 425–426.

7. Gynostemma pentaphyllum (thunb.) makino (vitis pentaphylla thunb.). In: Azimova S, Glushenkova A, eds. Lipids, Lipophilic Components and Essential Oils from Plant Sources. Springer London; 2012: 311–312.

8. Xie Z, Liu W, Huang H, et al. Chemical composition of five commercial Gynostemma pentaphyllum samples and their radical scavenging, antiproliferative, and anti-inflammatory properties [published online ahead of print October 12, 2010]. J Agric Food Chem. 2010. 20939605

9. Kim JH, Han YN. Dammarane-type saponins from Gynostemma pentaphyllum. Phytochemistry. 2011; 72 (11–12): 1453–1459. 21565370

10. Shi L, Cao JQ, Shi SM, Zhao YQ. Triterpenoid saponins from Gynostemma pentaphyllum. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2011; 13 (2): 168–177. 21279881

11. Nguyen PH, Gauhar R, Hwang SL, et al. New dammarane-type glucosides as potential activators of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) from Gynostemma pentaphyllum. Bioorg Med Chem. 2011; 19 (21): 6254–6260. 21978948

12. Li N, Wu CF, Xu XY, Liu ZY, Li X, Zhao YQ. Triterpenes possessing an unprecedented skeleton isolated from hydrolyzate of total saponins from Gynostemma pentaphyllum. Eur J Med Chem. 2012; 50: 173–178. 22342101

13. Hung TM, Thu CV, Cuong TD, et al. Dammarane-type glycosides from Gynostemma pentaphyllum and their effects on IL-4-induced eotaxin expression in human bronchial epithelial cells. J Nat Prod. 2010; 73 (2): 192–196. 20104880

14. Hu Y, Ip FC, Fu G, Pang H, Ye W, Ip NY. Dammarane saponins from Gynostemma pentaphyllum. Phytochemistry. 2010; 71 (10): 1149–1157. 20483436

15. Kao TH, Huang SC, Inbaraj BS, Chen BH. Determination of flavonoids and saponins in Gynostemma pentaphyllum (thunb.) makino by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta. 2008; 626 (2): 200–211. 18790122

16. Huang SC, Hung CF, Wu WB, Chen BH. Determination of chlorophylls and their derivatives in Gynostemma pentaphyllum makino by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2008; 48 (1): 105–112. 18573631

17. Hsu HY, Yang JS, Lu KW, et al. An experimental study on the antileukemia effects of gypenosides in vitro and in vivo. Integr Cancer Ther. 2011; 10 (1): 101–112. 20702487

18. Tsai YC, Lin CL, Chen BH. Preparative chromatography of flavonoids and saponins in Gynostemma pentaphyllum and their antiproliferation effect on hepatoma cell. Phytomedicine. 2010; 18 (1): 2–10. 21036575

19. Zhu H, Liu Z, Tang L, et al. Reversal of P-gp and MRP1-mediated multidrug resistance by H6, a gypenoside aglycon from Gynostemma pentaphyllum, in vincristine-resistant human oral cancer (KB/VCR) cells. Eur J Pharmacol. 2012; 696 (1–3): 43–53. 23051672

20. Schild L, Chen BH, Makarov P, Kattengell K, Heinitz K, Keilhoff G. Selective induction of apoptosis in glioma tumour cells by a Gynostemma pentaphyllum extract. Phytomedicine. 2010; 17 (8–9): 589–597. 20106643

21. Lu KW, Chen JC, Lai TY, et al. Gypenosides inhibits migration and invasion of human oral cancer SAS cells through the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-2 -9 and urokinase-plasminogen by ERK1/2 and NF-kappa B signaling pathways. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2011; 30 (5): 406–415. 20511288

22. Lu HF, Chen YS, Yang JS, et al. Gypenosides induced G0/G1 arrest via inhibition of cyclin E and induction of apoptosis via activation of caspases-3 and -9 in human lung cancer A-549 cells. In Vivo. 2008; 22 (2): 215–221. 18468406

23. Lu KW, Tsai ML, Chen JC, et al. Gypenosides inhibited invasion and migration of human tongue cancer SCC4 cells through down-regulation of NFkappaB and matrix metalloproteinase-9. Anticancer Res. 2008; 28 (2A): 1093–1099. 18507059

24. Chen JC, Lu KW, Tsai ML, et al. Gypenosides induced G0/G1 arrest via CHk2 and apoptosis through endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondria-dependent pathways in human tongue cancer SCC-4 cells. Oral Oncol. 2009; 45 (3): 273–283. 18674953

25. Cheng TC, Lu JF, Wang JS, Lin LJ, Kuo HI, Chen BH. Antiproliferation effect and apoptosis mechanism of prostate cancer cell PC-3 by flavonoids and saponins prepared from Gynostemma pentaphyllum. J Agric Food Chem. 2011; 59 (20): 11319–11329. 21905716

26. Takagi J, Imada T, Kikuchi T, Saito Y, Inada Y. A new platelet aggregation factor from Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino. Chem Pharm Bull. 1985; 33 (12): 5568–5571. 3833397

27. Wu J, Qiu P, Liu J, Mu Q, Xin D. Effects of gypenosides on platelet aggregation release and cAMP level in rabbits [in Chinese]. Chin J Pharmacol Toxicol. 1990; 4 (1): 54–57.

28. Li Y, Ping Li, Meng F, Zhang G, Wang Z. Effects of total gypenosides on heart function and blood pressure of rabbits [in Chinese]. Acta Acad Med Shandong. 1990; 28 (3): 34–36.

29. Chen L, Qiu S, Li Q, He Y. Comparison between the effects of gypenosides and ginsenosides on cardiac function and hemodynamics in dogs [in Chinese]. Chin J Pharmacol Toxicol. 1990; 4 (1): 17–20.

30. Wang Z, Qiu P. Protective effect of gypenoside on acute incomplete cerebral ischemia in rabbits [in Chinese]. Chin J Pharmacol Toxicol. 1992; 6 (3): 204–206.

31. Ge M, Ma S, Tao L, Guan S. The effect of gypenosides on cardiac function and expression of cytoskeletal genes of myocardium in diabetic cardiomyopathy rats. Am J Chin Med. 2009; 37 (6): 1059–1068. 19938216

32. Wang P, Niu L, Guo XD, et al. Gypenosides protects dopaminergic neurons in primary culture against MPP(+)-induced oxidative injury. Brain Res Bull. 2010; 83 (5): 266–271. 20615455

33. Schild L, Cotte T, Keilhoff G, Brodemann R. Preconditioning of brain slices against hypoxia induced injury by a Gynostemma pentaphyllum extract-stimulation of anti-oxidative enzyme expression. Phytomedicine. 2012; 19 (8–9): 812–818. 22516894

34. Schild L, Roth A, Keilhoff G, Gardemann A, Brodemann R. Protection of hippocampal slices against hypoxia/hypoglycemia injury by a Gynostemma pentaphyllum extract. Phytomedicine. 2009; 16 (8): 734–743. 19406629

35. Zhang XS, Bi XL, Wan-Xiao, et al. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitory effect by dammarane-type triterpenes from hydrolyzate of total Gynostemma pentaphyllum saponins. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2013; 23 (1): 297–300. 23177789

36. Wang P, Niu L, Gao L, et al. Neuroprotective effect of gypenosides against oxidative injury in the substantia nigra of a mouse model of Parkinson’s disease. J Int Med Res. 2010; 38 (3): 1084–1092. 20819446

37. Choi HS, Park MS, Kim SH, Hwang BY, Lee CK, Lee MK. Neuroprotective effects of herbal ethanol extracts from Gynostemma pentaphyllum in the 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat model of Parkinson’s disease. Molecules. 2010; 15 (4): 2814–2824. 20428081

38. Xu F, Sun X, Zhou H. Anti-aging actions of Gynostemma pentaphyllum and its compound formula [in Chinese]. Chin Tradit Pat Med. 1989; 11 (5): 29–30.

39. Hong SW, Yang JH, Joh EH, Kim HJ, Kim DH. Gypenoside TN-2 ameliorates scopolamine-induced learning deficit in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011; 134 (3): 1010–1013. 21333723

40. Gauhar R, Hwang SL, Jeong SS, et al. Heat-processed Gynostemma pentaphyllum extract improves obesity in ob/ob mice by activating AMP-activated protein kinase. Biotechnol Lett. 2012; 34 (9): 1607–1616. 22576281

41. Qin R, Zhang J, Li C, et al. Protective effects of gypenosides against fatty liver disease induced by high fat and cholesterol diet and alcohol in rats. Arch Pharm Res. 2012; 35 (7): 1241–1250. 22864747

42. Yeo J, Kang YJ, Jeon SM, et al. Potential hypoglycemic effect of an ethanol extract of Gynostemma pentaphyllum in C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice. J Med Food. 2008; 11 (4): 709–716. 19053864

43. Huyen VT, Phan DV, Thang P, Hoa NK, Ostenson CG. Antidiabetic effect of Gynostemma pentaphyllum tea in randomly assigned type 2 diabetic patients. Horm Metab Res. 2010; 42 (5): 353–357. 20213586

44. Huyen VT, Phan DV, Thang P, Ky PT, Hoa NK, Ostenson CG. Antidiabetic effects of add-on Gynostemma pentaphyllum extract therapy with sulfonylureas in type 2 diabetic patients. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012; 2012: 452313. 23125867

45. Chou SC, Chen KW, Hwang JS, et al. The add-on effects of Gynostemma pentaphyllum on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Altern Ther Health Med. 2006; 12 (3): 34–39. 16708768

46. la Cour B, Mølgaard P, Yi Z. Traditional Chinese medicine in treatment of hyperlipidaemia. J Ethnopharmacol. 1995; 46 (2): 125–129. 7650951

47. Geng W, Yang Y, Liang J, Li Y, He Q. Effects of Gynostemma pentaphyllum extract on T-lymphocyte and lipid metabolism in rats [in Chinese]. Guangxi Med J. 1988; 10 (1): 8–9.

48. Dai H, Meng Q, Zhu H. Effects of the total saponin of Gynostemma pentaphyllum on lipoproteins [in Chinese]. Zhong Cao Yao. 1989; 20 (4): 172–173.

49. Hu X, Ye C, Li X, et al. Antilipemic effect Gynostemma pentaphyllum in patients [in Chinese]. Fu Jian Yi Yao Za Zhi. 1988; 10 (5): 4–6.

50. Zhou H, Xie X, Sun M. Treatment of hyperlipidemia with Gynostemma pentaphyllum Jiaogulan. Hunan Med J. 1991; 8 (5): 259–260.

51. Huang WC, Kuo ML, Li ML, Yang RC, Liou CJ, Shen JJ. Gynostemma pentaphyllum decreases allergic reactions in a murine asthmatic model. Am J Chin Med. 2008; 36 (3): 579–592. 18543390

52. Liou CJ, Huang WC, Kuo ML, Yang RC, Shen JJ. Long-term oral administration of Gynostemma pentaphyllum extract attenuates airway inflammation and Th2 cell activities in ovalbumin-sensitized mice. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010; 48 (10): 2592–2598. 20558230

53. Im SA, Choi HS, Choi SO, et al. Restoration of electric footshock-induced immunosuppression in mice by Gynostemma pentaphyllum components. Molecules. 2012; 17 (7): 7695–7708. 22732883

54. Suntararuks S, Yoopan N, Rangkadilok N, Worasuttayangkurn L, Nookabkaew S, Satayavivad J. Immunomodulatory effects of cadmium and Gynostemma pentaphyllum herbal tea on rat splenocyte proliferation. J Agric Food Chem. 2008; 56 (19): 9305–9311. 18795782

55. Wang J, Cao B, Ying X, Zhou Z. Immunologic effects of jiaogulan granule in 19 cancer patients [in Chinese]. Zhejiang Zhong Yi Za Zhi. 1989; 24 (10): 449.

56. Srichana D, Taengtip R, Kondo S. Antimicrobial activity of Gynostemma pentaphyllum extracts against fungi producing aflatoxin and fumonisin and bacteria causing diarrheal disease. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2011; 42 (3): 704–710. 21706950

57. Muller C, Gardemann A, Keilhoff G, Peter D, Wiswedel I, Schild L. Prevention of free fatty acid-induced lipid accumulation, oxidative stress, and cell death in primary hepatocyte cultures by a Gynostemma pentaphyllum extract. Phytomedicine. 2012; 19 (5): 395–401. 22381945

58. Chi A, Tang L, Zhang J, Zhang K. Chemical composition of three polysaccharides from Gynostemma pentaphyllum and their antioxidant activity in skeletal muscle of exercised mice. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2012; 22 (6): 479–485. 23212320

59. Hu JH, Li QW, Zhang T, Jiang ZL. Effect of Gynostemma pentaphyllum polysaccharide on boar spermatozoa quality following freezing-thawing. Cryobiology. 2009; 59 (3): 244–249. 19422816

60. Chen MH, Wang QF, Chen LG, et al. The inhibitory effect of Gynostemma pentaphyllum on MCP-1 and type I procollagen expression in rat hepatic stellate cells. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009; 126 (1): 42–49. 19699789

61. Chen MH, Chen SH, Wang QF, et al. The molecular mechanism of gypenosides-induced G1 growth arrest of rat hepatic stellate cells. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008; 117 (2): 309–317. 18372131

62. Chen Z, Su H. Progress in the research on the pharmacology of Gynostemma pentaphyllum

[in Chinese]

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63. Attawish A, Chivapat S, Phadungpat S, et al. Chronic toxicity of Gynostemma pentaphyllum. Fitoterapia. 2004; 75 (6): 539–551. 15351107

64. Chen J, Xu H. Antistress action of Gynostemma pentaphyllum

[in Chinese]

. Chin Tradit Pat Med. 1989; 11 (1): 31–32.

65. Li R, Zhou L, Liao Z, et al. Chemical and pharmacological studies on Gynostemma pentaphyllum. J New Chin Med. 1988; 20 (4): 51–53.

66. Liu X, Gau J, Huang R. Pharmacological studies on the total saponin of Gynostemma pentaphyllum from Guangxi. Chin Tradit Pat Med. 1989; 11 (8): 27–29.

67. Jeenduang N, Sangkaew B, Chantaracha P, et al. APOE and CETP TaqIB polymorphisms influence metabolic responses to Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino tea consumption in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2017; 26 (2): 368–378. 28244718

68. Liu ZL, Xie LZ, Zhu J, Li GQ, Grant SJ, Liu JP. Herbal medicines for fatty liver diseases. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Aug 24; (8): CD009059. 23975682

69. Park SH, Huh TL, Kim SY, et al. Antiobesity effect of Gynostemma pentaphyllum extract (actiponin): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2014; 22 (1): 63–71. 23804546